Minggu, 18 April 2010

bab 1 pendahuluan

PENDAHULUAN
1. What is Sociology?
Sociology is the systematic study of social behavior and human groups. It focuses primarily on the influence of social relationships on people's attitudes and behavior and how societies are established and change. In attempt to understand social behavior, sociologists rely on an unusual such thinking as sociological imagination. Sociology emphasizes the influence that groups can have on people's behavior and attitudes and ways in which people shape societies

2. What is Sociological Theory ?
Theories as attempts to explain events, materials, ideas or behavior in a comprehensive manner. Within sociology, a theory is a set of statement that seek to explain problem. Actions or behavior. Example : Suicide and social factors

3. The Development of Sociology

• Auguste Comte “How society might be improved”
• Harriet Martineau “Social class distinctions and to such factors as gender and race””
• Herbert Spencer “Society as a big unit from sociology”
• Emile Durkhein Relationships between suicide and social factors”
• Max Weber “Theory of Bureaucracy”
• Karl Marx “Social class theory”

5. Major Theoretical Perspectives

• Functionalist Perspectives
A sociological approach that emphasizes the way that parts of a society are structured to maintain its stability
• Conflict Perspectives
A sociological approach that assumes that social behavior is the best understood in terms of conflict or tension between competing groups
• Interactionist Perspectives
A sociological approach that generalizes about fundamental or everyday forms of social interaction
• Feminist Perspectives
A sociological approach that views inequality of gender as central to all behaviour and organization



6. What is Politics ?
Concept in politics
• State
• Power and authority
• Decision Making
• Public Policy
• Allocation, distribution, stabilization and regulation

Karl Marx (1818 – 1883)
“Social Class Theory”
Max Weber (1864 – 1920)
“The Protestant Ethnic and Spirit of Capitalism”

7. Tripartite classification of authority
• Traditional authorities receive loyalty because they continue and support the preservation of existing values, the status quo. Traditional authority has the longest history. Patriarchal (and more rarely Matriarchal) societies gave rise to hereditary monarchies where authority was given to descendants of previous leaders. Followers submit to this authority because "we've always done it that way." Examples of traditional authoritarians include kings and queens.
• Charismatic authority grows out of the personal charm or the strength of an individual personality (see cult of personality for the most extreme version). Charismatic regimes are often short lived, seldom outliving the charismatic figure that leads them. Examples include Hitler, Napoleon, and Mao.
• Legal-Rational authorities receive their ability to compel behavior by virtue of the office that they hold. It is the authority that demands obedience to the office rather than the office holder. Modern democracies are examples of legal-rational regimes.

8. Concept of Political Sociology
A Definition of Economics
Economics is the science of choice — the science that explains the choices that we make and how those choices change as we cope with scarcity.

9. Pengertian Sosiologi dan Politik dalam Kerangka Analisis Ekonomi

“Proses dimana keterlibatan pemerintah atau negara dengan kekuasaan dan otoritasnya dalam perekonomian suatu masyarakat, serta mengenai segenap konsekuensi ekonomi dari ukuran serta struktur tertentu dari sektor publik tersebut. Fokus utama lebih ditekankan pada berbagai perbedaan antara sektor publik (pemerintah) dan sektor swasta (masyarakat) dan pasar serta segenap implikasinya terhadap ekonomi dan politik”

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